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Syllabus Sociology (Elective) B.A / B.Sc University of Sargodha

University of Sargodha Sociology (Elective) B.A / B.Sc  Syllabus

University of Sargodha (uos)


Sociology (B.A)

 (Syllabi and Courses of Reading)


Paper A:           General Sociology:                                                                    100

Paper B:           Sociological Theory, Research and Social Problem.                    100

Grant Total:      200


Paper A: General Sociology


Note:    (All the topics should be covered in the context of Pakistani Society)


  • Introduction:-
    • Definition of Sociology
    • Subject Matter
    • Relationship of Sociology with other Social Sciences: Political Sciences, Psychology, Economics, History and Anthropology.
    • Utility and application of Sociology.

… Read More »

  • Social Groups:-
    • Definition
    • Types of Groups: Primary Groups, Secondary Groups, In Groups, Out Groups, Formal Groups and Informal Groups.
    • Distinction between Social Groups and Social Categories.
    • Other Related Concepts: Reference Groups, Locality Groups, Society.


  • Social Interaction:-
    • Definition
    • Importance of Social Interaction.
    • Processes of Social Interaction: Cooperation, Competition, Conflict, Assimilation, Accommodation and Acculturation.
  • Social Norms:-
    • Definition
    • Types of Social Norms: Folkways, Mores (Amar-o-Nehi), Laws.
    • Other Related Concepts: Deviancy, Social Control, Social Sanctions, Toboos, Values and Beliefs.
  • Status and Role:-
    • Definition
    • Types of Status and Role: Achieved and Ascribed.
    • Related Concepts: Role Conflict and Role Playing.
  • Culture:-
    • Definition
    • Elements of Culture: Traits, Patterns, Complexes, Ethos.
    • Types of Culture: Non-Material and Material, Ideal and Real.
    • Cultural Uniformity and Cultural Variability.
    • Other Related Concepts: Sub-Culture, Cultural Relativism and Ethnocontrism.
  • Socialization and Personality:-
    • Definition
    • Personality: Important factors in personality formation including Heredity, Socio-Cultural and Unique Experiences. Interplay of these factor.
    • Socialization: As a Process in Role Taking and Role Playing.
    • Concept of Self: Theories of George Meahd and C.H. Cooley.
  • Social Stratification:-
    • Caste, Bradari and Class.
    • Social Mobility and its Types and Factors Affecting Mobility.
  • Social Institutions:-
    • Types of Social Institutions: Political, Economic, Religious, Education, Family and Kinship and Recreational.
    • Interrelationship of Social Institutions.


  • Social and Cultural Change:-
    • Definition
    • Factors of Socio-Cultural Change.
    • Resistance to Socio-Cultural Change.
    • Socio-Cultural Change in Pakistani Society.

Recommended Books:-


1. Baqai, M.S. Social Order in Pakistani Society, Karachi: National Book Foundation, 1975
2. Chaudhary, Iqbal M. “Umraniyat”, Lahore:  Aziz Publishers, 1981
3. Horton Paul B. and Hundhester L. Sociology, Singapore:  Mc Graw Hill Book Company, 1990
4. Koening, Samuel Sociology – An Introduction to the Science of Society, New York:  Bames and Noble Books, Horper and Row Publishers, 1957.
5. Malik Abdul Hamid “Ibtidal Moasheryat” Lahore:  Standard Book House, 1994.
6. Rao N. Shaukar Sociology, New Delhi:   S. Hand and Company Ltd. 1990.
Paper B: Sociological Theory and Research:

 Social Thought and Sociological Theory:-

    • Meaning and Nature of Social Thought.
    • Meaning and Nature of Sociological Theory:
  • Brief Introduction to Muslim Social Thought:-

Ibn-e-Khaldun, Imam Ghazali and Shah Wali Ullah.

 Sociological Theories:-

Auguste Comte, Emile Durkheim and Max Weber.

  • Research Methodology:-
    • Scientific Method and its application to Sociology.
    • Types of Sociological Research: Exploratory, Descriptive and Explanatory / Experimental.
    • Relationship between Theory and Research.
    • Different Methods of Sociological Research: Qualitative and Quantitative Methods.
  • Research Design:-
    • Selection of problem
    • Concepts Literature Review
    • Variables
    • Plan of Work
  • Universe and Sampling:-
    • Definition of Universe.
    • Definition of Sampling.
    • Types of Sample: Simple Random Sample and Stratified Sample.
  • Data Collection:-
    • Techniques of Data Collection: Interviewing and Observation.
    • Tools of Data Collection: Interview schedule and questionnaire.
  • Analysis of Data:-
    • Frequency Distribution and Tabulation.
    • Ratios and Percentages.
    • Measure of Central Tendency (Average): Mean, Median and Mode.
  • Social Problems:-
    • Overpopulation
    • Illiteracy
    • Crime & Delinquenty
    • Environmental Pollution

Recommended Books:-


1. Baker, Therese L. Doing Social Research, New York:   The Free Pess, 1988
2. Goode, William, J. and Paul K. Hatt: Methods in Social Research, London:  McGraw Hill, 1952
3. Horton, B. and Lesie Gerald R. (latest ed) —-
4. Young, Pauline V Scientific Social Surveys and Research, Tokyo:  charles E. Tutritie o.
5. Ali. Dr. M. Basharat: Muslims:   The first Sociologists, Lahore:  Maktabai-Miliya.
6. Taga, Abdul Hameed “Umrani Nazria wa Tahqeeq”, Lahore:  Islmai Brothers Publiehrs, 1991
7. Ahmad, Fahmida Masood “Moashrati Masael Ki Omraniat”, Karachi:  Illmi Kitab Ghar, 1992.
8. Khalid, Mohammad Sociological Theory:  A Historial Perpective, Karachi: Kifayat Academy, 1990.

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